The Basics of Knee Replacement Surgery: A Comprehensive Guide

If your knee is severely damaged due to arthritis or injury, you may find it difficult to perform simple activities like walking or climbing stairs. You may even experience pain while sitting or lying down.

If nonsurgical treatments, such as medications and walking aids, are no longer effective, you may want to consider total knee replacement surgery. Joint replacement surgery is a safe and effective procedure for relieving pain, correcting leg deformity, and allowing you to return to normal activities.

Knee replacement surgery was performed for the first time in 1968. Improvements in surgical materials and techniques have greatly increased its effectiveness since then. Total knee replacements are one of the most successful medical procedures. According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality,In terms of quantity and quality, over 750,000 knee replacements were performed in the India in 2017.

Whether you are just starting to look into treatment options or have already decided on total knee replacement surgery, this article will help you learn more about this beneficial procedure.

What knee replacement looks like ?

  • The knee is the body's largest joint, and having healthy knees is required for most daily activities.
  • The knee is made up of the thighbone's lower end (femur), the shinbone's upper end (tibia), and the kneecap (patella). The ends of these three bones are protected by articular cartilage, a smooth substance that allows the bones to move freely within the joint.
  • Between the femur and tibia are the menisci. These C-shaped wedges serve as shock absorbers for the joint.
  • Large ligaments connect the femur and tibia and provide stability. The knee is supported by the long thigh muscles.
  • The remaining surfaces of the knee are protected by a thin lining known as the The synovial membrane. In a healthy knee, this membrane secretes a fluid that lubricates the cartilage, reducing friction to nearly zero.
  • Normally, all of these elements work in tandem. However, disease or injury can disrupt this balance, causing pain, muscle weakness, and decreased function.
When knee replacement is necessary ?

A knee replacement (also known as arthroplasty) may be more accurately referred to as a knee "resurfacing" because only the surface of the bones are replaced.

A knee replacement procedure involves four basic steps:

  • Make the bone. The damaged cartilage surfaces at the ends of the femur and tibia, as well as a small amount of underlying bone, are removed.
  • Place the metal implants. The removed cartilage and bone are replaced with metal components that recreate the joint surface. These metal components are cemented or "press-fit" into the bone.
  • Resurface the patellar tendon. A plastic button is used to resurface the undersurface of the patella (kneecap). Depending on the circumstances, some surgeons do not resurface the patella.
  • Add a spacer. A high-quality To create a smooth gliding surface, a plastic spacer is inserted between the metal components.
Is Total Knee Replacement a Good Option for You?

Total knee replacement surgery should be decided collaboratively by you, your family, your primary care doctor, and your orthopaedic surgeon. Your doctor may refer you to an orthopaedic surgeon for a thorough evaluation to determine if this surgery is right for you.

Why knee replacement is required?

Your doctor may recommend knee replacement surgery for a variety of reasons. Individuals who benefit from total knee replacement frequently have:

Severe knee pain or stiffness that limits daily activities such as walking, stair climbing, and getting in and out of chairs.  It may be difficult to walk more than a few blocks without significant discomfort.pain, and you may need to use a cane or walker

  • Day or night, moderate to severe knee pain while resting
  • Chronic knee inflammation and swelling that is not relieved by rest or medication
  • Knee deformity is defined as a bowing in or out of the knee.
  • Other treatments, such as anti-inflammatory medications, cortisone injections, lubricating injections, physical therapy, or other surgeries, have failed to significantly improve.