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Prostate Cancer

What exactly is prostate cancer?

In males and persons designated male at birth, prostate cancer develops in the prostate, a tiny walnut-shaped gland positioned below the bladder and in front of the rectum (AMAB). This small gland secretes fluid that combines with sperm to keep it healthy for conception and pregnancy.

Did you know in 2009 there were around 192,280 cases of prostate cancer, which increased to 268,490 new cases in 2022? Prostate cancer is a dangerous condition and these numbers are increasingly significantly, which calls for the need of prostate cancer treatment even more severely.

Fortunately, most men have prostate cancer detected before it spreads beyond the prostate gland. Treatment at this stage frequently results in cancer eradication.

Prostate Cancer

What are the different forms of prostate cancer?

The prostate gland is a tiny walnut-shaped gland below the urinary bladder in men. In case you are wondering what the different forms of prostate cancer are and what are the prostate cancer treatment in India, here you go! 

  • Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common form of prostate cancer developing from the glandular cells and accounting for over 90% of cases.
  • Small cell carcinoma: Small cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of prostate cancer. It tends to grow rapidly and may spread to other parts of the body early in the course of the disease.
  • Ductal adenocarcinoma: Ductal adenocarcinoma originates in the cells lining the ducts of the prostate gland. It can be more aggressive than typical adenocarcinoma.
  • Sarcomatoid carcinoma: Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of prostate cancer with features of both adenocarcinoma and sarcoma. It is characterized by the presence of spindle-shaped cells.
  • Transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma: Transitional cell carcinoma arises from the cell lining the urinary tract and prostate gland. It occurs in the bladder but can also affect the prostate.
Prostate cancer is a complex disease, and each case can have unique characteristics and behaviour. The specific form and stage of prostate cancer play a crucial role in determining the appropriate options for prostate cancer treatment and prognosis for an individual patient.

Prostate tumours that are less prevalent include:
  • Carcinomas of the small cell type.
  • Transitional cell carcinomas are cancers of the transitional cells.
  • Tumors of the neuroendocrine system.
  • Sarcomas.

Prostate Cancer

What is the prevalence of prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among males and individuals AMAB, after skin cancer. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 13 men out of every 100 get prostate cancer at some point in their lives. Most will live regular lives and die from reasons other than prostate cancer. Some people will not require therapy.

Even so, nearly 34,000 Indians die from prostate cancer each year.

Prostate Cancer

What signs and symptoms of prostate cancer are there?

To determine the prostate cancer treatment surgery or for that matter prostate cancer treatment cost, identifying the symptoms and understanding the stage is vital Symptoms of early-stage prostate cancer are uncommon.

#1 Urinary Changes
  • Need to pee frequently, sometimes urgently, especially at night.
  • Weak urine flow or intermittent flow.
  • When you pee, you may experience pain or burning (dysuria).
  • bladder control problems (urinary incontinence).
  • Bowel control problems (fecal incontinence)
  • Erectile dysfunction and painful ejaculation (PE)
  • Blood in sperm or urine (hematospermia).
  • You are experiencing pain in your low back, hip, or chest.

#2 Erectile dysfunction: 

  • Prostate cancer can affect erectile function, leading to difficulties in achieving or maintaining an erection.

#3 Blood in semen:

  • Patients with prostate-related issues or prostate cancer might see a noticeable amount of blood in the semen. 

#4 Pain or discomfort:

  • Advanced prostate cancer may also cause pain or discomfort in the lower back, pelvic area, upper thighs, or hips. If the cancer has spread to the bones, it may also cause bone pain.

So, if you are experiencing any of these symptoms it’s always better to reach out to healthcare specialists for finding the prostate cancer treatment or the right treatment course. 

Prostate Cancer

Are prostate issues always indicative of prostate cancer?

Not all prostate growths are cancerous.

Other illnesses that mimic prostate cancer symptoms include:

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Almost everyone with a prostate will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) at some point. This condition enlarges the prostate gland but does not increase the risk of cancer.

Prostatitis: If you are under the age of 50, an enlarged prostate gland is most often caused by prostatitis. Prostatitis is a non-cancerous illness that causes inflammation and swelling of the prostate gland. Bacterial infections are frequently to blame.

Prostate Cancer

What is the cause of prostate cancer?

Experts aren't sure what causes prostate cells to become cancerous. Prostate cancer develops, like other cancers, when cells divide more quickly than usual. Cancer cells, unlike normal ones, do not die. Instead, they proliferate and form a mass known as a tumour. Places of the tumour may break off and spread to other parts of your body as the cells continue to proliferate (metastasize).
Prostate cancer, fortunately, develops slowly. Most cancers are detected before they spread beyond your prostate. At this stage, prostate cancer is very curable.

Prostate Cancer

What are the prostate cancer risk factors?

The following are the most prevalent risk factors:

Age. As you get older, your risk increases. You're more likely to getIf you are over the age of 50, you may be diagnosed. Prostate cancer affects around 60% of men over the age of 65.
Ethnicity and race. If you are Black or of African descent, you are more vulnerable. You are more prone to get prostate tumours that spread quickly. You're also more likely to get prostate cancer before the age of 50.
Prostate cancer runs in the family. If a close family member has prostate cancer, you are two to three times more likely to have it.

Genetics. If you have Lynch syndrome or inherited mutant (modified) genes linked to an elevated risk of breast cancer, you are at a higher risk (BRCA1 and BRCA2).
Other prostate cancer risk factors have been discovered in certain studies, although the evidence is equivocal. Other potential risk factors are as follows:

  • Having a BMI greater than 30 (having obesity).
  • Infections spread through sexual contact (STIs).
  • Agent Orange exposure (a chemical used during the Vietnam War).

Prostate Cancer

How is prostate cancer identified?

Screenings can aid in the early detection of prostate cancer. If you are at medium risk, your first screening test will most likely be at the age of 55. If you are in a high-risk category, you may require early testing. Screenings often end at the age of 70.

If your screenings reveal that you have prostate cancer, you may require further tests or treatments.

Prostate cancer screening tests
Screening tests can determine if you have prostate cancer symptoms that necessitate further investigation.
Your provider does a digital rectal exam by inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum and feeling your prostate gland. Bumpy or hard spots might indicate malignancy.

PSA blood test: The prostate gland produces a protein known as protein-specific antigen (PSA) (PSA). PSA readings over a certain threshold may suggest malignancy. Levels If you have a benign disease, such as BPH or prostatitis, your risk of prostate cancer increases.

Prostate cancer diagnostic techniques
Not everyone with prostate cancer requires a formal diagnosis. For example, if your provider believes your tumor is developing slowly, they may postpone more testing since it isn't significant enough to warrant therapy. If it becomes more aggressive (growing quickly or spreading), you may require further testing, possibly a biopsy.

Not everyone with prostate cancer requires a formal diagnosis. For example, if your tumor is deemed to be slow growing, your provider may postpone more testing since it isn't considered significant enough to warrant therapy. If it becomes more aggressive (growing quickly or spreading), you may require further testing, possibly a biopsy.

An MRI is a type of imaging, and a transrectal ultrasound can display pictures of your prostate gland, including potentially cancerous regions. The findings of imaging tests might help your doctor determine whether or not to do a biopsy.

Biopsy: During a needle biopsy, a healthcare worker takes a tissue sample to be tested for malignancy in a lab. A biopsy is the only surefire way to diagnose prostate cancer and determine how aggressive it is. The biopsied tissue may be subjected to genetic testing by your physician. Some cancer cells contain traits (such as mutations) that increase their likelihood of responding to specific therapies.

Prostate Cancer

What is the management or treatment of prostate cancer?

Your therapy will be determined by a number of criteria, including your general health, if the cancer has spread, and how quickly it is progressing. Depending on your therapy, you may need to consult with urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists. The majority of prostate cancers discovered in their early stages are curable.

  • Specific techniques were employed.
  • Surveillance
If your cancer develops slowly and does not spread, your doctor may decide to monitor your condition rather than treat it.

Active surveillance entails getting screenings, scans, and biopsies every one to three years to monitor the progression of cancer. Active surveillance is most effective if the cancer grows slowly, is limited to your prostate, and is not producing symptoms. If your illness worsens, your physician will be able to begin therapy as prostate cancer treatment alternative.
Watchful Watchful waiting is comparable to active surveillance, but it is more typically used for persons who are frailer and have cancer that is unlikely to respond to therapy. Furthermore, testing is far less common. Treatments often focus on symptom management rather than tumour elimination.
A damaged prostate gland is removed during a radical prostatectomy. This prostate cancer treatmentcan frequently eradicate prostate tumours that have not spread. If your provider believes you will benefit from this procedure, they can propose the optimal removal approach.

Open radical prostatectomy:

  • Your provider removes your prostate gland with a single cut (incision) in your abdomen, from your belly button to your pubic bone. This procedure is not as frequent as less invasive procedures such as robotic prostatectomy.
  • Robotic radical prostate surgery: Robotic radical prostatectomy enables your doctor to to do surgery through multiple small incisions. Instead of operating directly, they use a console to control a robot system.
  • Radiation treatment
  • Radiation therapy can be used alone or in conjunction with other therapies to treat prostate cancer. Radiation can also relieve symptoms.
  • Brachytherapy is a type of internal radiation therapy that includes implanting radioactive seeds within your prostate. This method eliminates cancer cells while leaving healthy tissue alone.
  • External beam radiation treatment (EBRT) involves the use of a machine to send powerful X-ray beams directly to the tumour. Specialized EBRT techniques, such as IMRT, can deliver high doses of radiation to the tumour while preserving healthy tissue.
  • Systemic treatments
  • If cancer has progressed beyond your prostate gland, your doctor may offer systemic therapy.Systemic treatments deliver chemicals throughout your body to destroy or inhibit the development of cancer cells.
Hormone therapy:
  • The hormone testosterone promotes the development of cancer cells. Hormone treatment employs drugs to counteract the effect of testosterone in promoting cancer cell development. The drugs act by either blocking testosterone from reaching cancer cells or by lowering testosterone levels.
  • Alternatively, your doctor may advise you to have your testicles removed (orchiectomy) so that they can no longer produce testosterone. People who do not wish to take drugs might choose for this operation.
  • Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. If your cancer has gone beyond your prostate, you may be treated with chemotherapy alone or in combination with hormone treatment.
  • Immunotherapy enhances your immune system, making it more capable of identifying and combating cancer cells.Immunotherapy may be recommended by your doctor to treat advanced cancer or recurring cancer (cancer that goes away but then returns).
  • Therapy with a specific goal: To prevent cancer cells from developing and proliferating, targeted treatment focuses on the genetic alterations (mutations) that transform healthy cells into cancer cells. Prostate cancer targeted medicines kill cancer cells with BRCA gene abnormalities.
  • Focused treatment
  • Focal therapy is a novel type of treatment that eliminates cancers within your prostate. If your cancer is low-risk and hasn't spread, your doctor may offer this therapy. Many of these therapies are currently being tested.
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU):
  • High-intensity sound waves produce intense heat, which kills cancer cells in the prostate.
  • Cold gases are used to freeze cancer cells in your prostate, killing them.Laser ablation: Directing intense heat to the tumour destroys cancer cells within your prostate, eliminating it.
Photodynamic therapy:
  • Medications make cancer cells more receptive to certain light wavelengths. Cancer cells are killed when they are exposed to certain light wavelengths by a healthcare professional. 

Prostate Cancer

What are the risks associated with prostate cancer treatment?

The following are some possible adverse effects:

Incontinence: When you cough, laugh, or have an urgent need to urinate, you may leak urine even though your bladder isn't full. Without therapy, this condition normally improves during the first six to twelve months.
Surgery, radiation, and other therapies might damage the erectile nerves in your penis, impairing your ability to obtain or sustain an erection. Erectile function is usually restored within a year or two (sometimes sooner). Meanwhile, drugs like sildenafil (Viagra®) or tadalafil (Cialis®) can aid by boosting blood flow to the penis.

Treatments can impair your capacity to create or ejaculate sperm, leading to infertility. If you desire to have children, you can store sperm in a sperm bank in the future before beginning therapy. Following therapy, you may need to have your sperm extracted. This treatment entails directly extracting sperm from testicular tissue and implanting it into your partner's uterus.
If you are having treatment side effects, see your doctor. They can frequently propose medications and treatments that can be beneficial.

Prostate Cancer

How can I avoid getting prostate cancer?

It is not feasible to prevent prostate cancer. Nonetheless, the following precautions may lower your risk:

  • Get frequent prostate exams. Inquire with your doctor about how frequently you should be checked based on your risk factors.
  • Keep a healthy weight. Inquire with your doctor about what a healthy weight means for you.
  • Exercise on a regular basis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise every week, or little more than 20 minutes per day.
  • Consume a well-balanced diet. Although there is no single diet that helps prevent cancer, excellent eating habits can enhance your general health. Consume fruits and vegetables, as well as whole grains. Red meat and processed meals should be avoided.
  • Stop smoking. Tobacco products should be avoided. If you smoke, consult with your provider to develop a smoking cessation programme.

Prostate Cancer

Is prostate cancer treatable?

Yes, if detected early. In other situations, cancer develops so slowly that therapy is not required right away. Prostate tumors that have not progressed beyond the prostate gland are typically curable.


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